Marketing environment is one of the important terms of marketing management. It is external to marketing management and is uncontrollable and ever changing. It consists of
- Intra-organizational environment
- Micro environment
- Macro environment
- Global environment (see figure 1):-
Successful companies know the importance of constantly scanning and adopting the changing environment. Marketing environment mainly consists of
- micro and macro environment(see figure 2):-
Micro environment of marketing:- It is the job of the marketer to establish good relationship with their micro environment as the success of the company depends upon the micro environment.
Company:- in company marketer must discuss all the plans and policies with the top management, r&d, purchasing, manufacturing, selling and other departments to give satisfaction to the consumer.
- Suppliers:- Suppliers are the persons who provide the company necessary raw material. If the company is not having cordial relations with the supplier then it may result into short run loss in sale and damage the customer relations
- Marketing intermediaries:- they help in promoting, selling and distributing the goods to the ultimate consumer. They include middleman like agents, dealers, whole-sellers, retailers, brokers; physical distribution firms which help the manufacturer in moving the goods from the factory to their destination; warehousing firms which help in storing and protecting the goods; transportation firms which help in moving the goods; market service agencies which help in consultancy, research, advertising etc; financing firms provide help in insuring the risk associated with the buyer.
- Customers:- as likes of customer changes very fast so for the growth of the company the marketer must keep studying the customer related factors and their demand regular basis.
- Competitors:- it is necessary for the marketing manager to have the knowledge about the competitors status, strength, weakness to take the competitive advantage.
- Public:-the company must have good public relation department to maintain good relations with the public.
Macro environment of marketing:- the Micro environment discussed above are controllable but the Macro environment are uncontrollable.
- Demographic environment:- it includes the life style, income, qualification, age, marital status, sex, family structure etc. so the marketer must have the knowledge about it. Like teenage market, kids market.
- Economic environment:– it means the purchasing power of the consumer the marketer must have the knowledge about the inflation, changing consumer pattern, real income, low saving etc.
- Natural environment:- the marketer must have the knowledge about natural resources, their shortage if any, government policies etc.
- Technological environment:-it is the technology which is changing the life of the people. So the marketer must keep an eye on the changing technology.
- Political environment:- political stability is very important for the growth of any economy it include the law, government agencies etc. marketing decisions are affected by the political environment.
- Legal environment:- the marketer must function as per the legal formalities and should not work against them.
- Cultural environment:– it include the values, beliefs, perceptions of the consumer which also affect the marketing environment. So the marketer must have the knowledge about it.
So the marketer can not always control the environment but whenever possible they can take proactive approach to the marketing environment.