The behavior of the consumer with regard to purchase is affected by various factors and these factors are uncontrollable. These factors are also called the determinants of consumer buying behavior. These factors affect the consumer behavior differently (see Figure). These are also called as the buying characteristics influencing consumer behavior.
1) Cultural factors and consumer behavior:-
a) Culture: culture is one of the important factors which affect the consumer buying behavior. It is the family values, beliefs, perceptions and preferences affect the consumer buying behavior. Like demand for fast food is the shift of cultural factors which created a market for them.
b) Subculture: the culture includes subculture within it like nationality, religious group, and communities etc. which affect the consumer buying behavior.
c) Social class: it is dividing the society in different social classes, where the members of same social class share same likings.
2) Social factor and consumer behavior:-
a) Family: the members of family play strong role on the consumer buying behavior. Family consists of:-
Influencer- the person who sense the need for purchase.
Decider- the person who takes final buying decision.
User- the person who uses the product.
b) reference group: it is not only the family which affect the consumer buying behavior but also the group outside the family also affect the consumer buying behavior, with whom we interact like friends, neighbors, co- workers etc.
c) Role and status: a person plays different role in the society. Like a role of son, husband, brother, father, business person etc. as per the role played by him the likings of the person effects.
3) Personal factors and consumer behavior:-
a) Age and life style: the consumer buying behavior changes with the age of the consumer like small child need toys, teenage needs fashionable clothes.
b) Occupation: occupation also affects the consumer buying behavior. Like the executive likes to buy expensive suits.
c) Income: the income also affects the consumer buying behavior.
d) Life style: it is the way of living of the person. Like some people like luxury livings while some in simple living.
d) Personality: personality also affects the consumer buying behavior.
4) Psychological factors and consumer behavior:-
a) Motivation: when the buyer’s need is raised to a particular level they become the motives which affect the consumer buying behavior.
b) Perception: this is how the buyer receives, selects and organizes the information.
c) Learning: learning affect the consumer buying behavior as a result of his experience.
d) Beliefs and attitude: belief means the opinion; attitude means the feeling of buyer towards the object. So the marketer should try to fit their object to buyer’s existing attitude effect the consumer buying behavior.
Therefore, all these factors affect the consumer buying behavior in marketing.