The helium-neon laser was the first gas laser to be operated successfully. It was fabricated by Ali Javan and his co-workers in Bell Telephone Laboratories in the USA in 1961.
Helium neon laser used a mixture of 10:1 for its active medium. It consists of a long and narrow discharge tube of diameter of about 1 cm and about 80 cm long. The mixture is at a pressure of about 1 mm of Hg, the partial pressure of helium gas being 5 to 10 times that of neon.
Active medium: The gas mixture of He and Ne forms the active medium. Ne act as active center.
Pumping Source: Electric discharge method is used for pumping and achieving population inversion.
Optical resonator system: A set of mirrors form the optical resonator system.
Reference: This article is referred from my authored book “optics and lasers” having ISBN 978-81-272-2948-2. Try to make the construction figure. In case of any doubt, post in comment section.
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