Forces inside the nucleus

The force with which two protons, two neutrons, or a proton and a neutron, attract one another in the nucleus is called nuclear force There are two types of particles in the nucleus of an atom: protons and neutrons, which taken together are called nucleons. Nuclei of small atoms are quite stable but the nuclei of big atoms are quite unstable. In order to know the reason, let us first discuss the various forces which operate inside the nucleus of an atom where we have positive protons and neutral neutrons.

There are two types of forces operating inside the nucleus of an atom. These are:

1. Electrostatic Force

The force which a charged particle exerts on another charged particle is called electrostatic force. If two particles have opposite charges, then the electrostatic force will cause attraction between them but if the particles have similar charges, then the electrostatic force will be repulsive and cause repulsion between the similarly charged particles.

As, the nucleus of an atom contains only positively charged protons, so in the nucleus of an atom, the electrostatic force is of repulsive nature and hence causes repulsion between the various protons present in the nucleus.

Therefore, if there had been only electrostatic force operating in the nucleus, then no nucleus of any atom would have been stable. The stability of the nucleus comes from the operation of another type of force in the nucleus called nuclear force or strong force.

2. Nuclear Force (or Strong Force)

The force with which two protons, two neutrons, or a proton and a neutron, attract one another in the nucleus is called nuclear force (or strong force) . Irrespective of the nature of charges of the particles involved, the nuclear force (or strong force) is always an “attractive force” which causes attraction between the particles.

Thus, the nuclear force can cause attraction even between a proton and another proton, even though they are similarly charged (both having positive charge). A nuclear force can also cause attraction between a proton and a neutron, as well as between a neutron and another neutron.

One important characteristic of nuclear force (or strong force) is that it is effective only when the particles like protons and neutrons are very, very close together. In other words, nuclear forces are short range forces. Strong force only operates at EXTREMELY small distances. These distances are on the order of a 1000th millionth millionth of a meter (10 to the power of -15). If you think about a micrometer (one hundredth the size of a human hair), it is a billion times smaller than that.

Thus, due to these two types of forces, we can explain that why the nucleus of small atoms is stable whereas that of big atom is unstable.

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Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana

The “Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana” (KVPY) is a program started during 1999 by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India to encourage students of different streams to take up research careers in these areas. The aim of the program is to identify and encourage talented students with aptitude for research.

This program strives to assist the students to realises their potential and to ensure that the best scientific talent is developed for research and growth in the country. Generous scholarship and contingency grant is provided (up to the Pre-Ph.D. level) to the selected students.

The KVPY is funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India. The program is administered by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc, Bangalore), through the overall control of the Chief Executive (SID). The selection of students from those who are studying +1, +2, any U.G. Program including First/Second year Engineering/Medicine are carried out by IISc (Bangalore), IIT-Bombay (Mumbai), and ICMR (New Delhi), respectively, in association with two Zonal Centres one at Kolkata (Indian Institute of Science Education Research, Kolkata) and another at Mumbai (HBCSE, TIFR). There are special groups or committees set up at IISc, IIT and ICMR which screen the applications, conduct interviews at various centres, make the final selection and attend to follow-up matters.

For more information, visit:

http://www.iisc.ernet.in/kvpy/

JNCASR Summer Research Fellowship 2011

Eligibility:

Science students studying in I, II or III year B.Sc., B.V.Sc., M.B.B.S., B.Pharma., and I and II year of M.Sc. course.

Engineering students studying in II and III year of B.E. and B.Tech can apply.

Selected students will be given an opportunity to pursue a research project with faculty chosen by the Centre for two months during the April-July period in the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bangalore or other institutions in the country.

For more information, vis

www.jncasr.ac.in

The “Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana” (KVPY) is a program started during 1999 by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India to encourage students of various disciplines like Basic Sciences, Engineering and Medicine to take up research careers in these areas. The aim of the program is to identify and encourage talented students with aptitude for research.

This program strives to assist the students to realise their potential and to ensure that the best scientific talent is developed for research and growth in the country. Generous scholarship and contingency grant is provided (up to the Pre-Ph.D. level) to the selected students.

In addition, summer programs for the KVPY Fellows are organised in prestigious research and educational institutions in the country.

The KVPY is funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India. The program is administered by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc, Bangalore), through the overall control of the Chief Executive (SID). The selection of students from those who are studying +1, +2, any U.G. Program including First/Second year Engineering/Medicine are carried out by IISc (Bangalore), IIT-Bombay (Mumbai), and ICMR (New Delhi), respectively, in association with two Zonal Centres one at Kolkata (Indian Institute of Science Education Research, Kolkata) and another at Mumbai (HBCSE, TIFR). There are special groups or committees set up at IISc, IIT and ICMR which screen the applications, conduct interviews at various centres, make the final selection and attend to follow-up matters.

So, hurry up, Last date for this golden opportunity is
1. By post : 01 September 2010
2. In person at IISc : 09 September 2010
3. Last date for closing of Online application: 09 September 2010
4. Last date for receipt of the completed application (both Online/Hard Copy along with cast certificate, project report and processing fee) :10 September 2010.

For more information, see website–
http://www.iisc.ernet.in/kvpy/