Construction and working of Ruby laser

The following article will explain each and everything about Ruby laser that is  everything about the construction and working of Ruby laser:

The first laser to be operated successfully was ruby laser. First demonstration of laser action using ruby crystal was given by T.H. Maiman in 1960. It is a solid state laser.


Ruby is a crystal of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) in which some of the aluminium ions (Al3+) are replaced by chromium ions (Cr3+). This is done by doping small amounts of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) in the melt of purified Al2O3.

These chromium ions give the crystal a pink or red color depending upon the concentration of chromium ions. Laser rods are prepared from a single crystal of pink ruby which contains 0.05% (by weight) chromium. Al2O3 does not participate in the laser action. It only acts as the host. Continue reading “Construction and working of Ruby laser”

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