Properties of paramagnetic materials

Paramagnetic materials have following properties:

  • In paramagnetic materials, the magnetic lines of forces due to the applied field are attracted towards the paramagnetic material.
  • When suspended in a uniform magnetic field, paramagnetic materials rotate so as to bring their longest axis along the direction of the magnetic field and shorter axis perpendicular to the field. Continue reading “Properties of paramagnetic materials”
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Atom as magnetic dipole

In an atom, electron revolves around the nucleus in a closed orbit. Since electron is a charged particle, so its orbit around the nucleus is equivalent to a current loop. When electron revolves in anticlockwise direction, the current is clockwise. Thus, upper face of the electron loop acts as south pole and lower face acts as north pole. Thus an atom behaves like a magnetic dipole.

Reference: This article is referred from my book “electrical engineering materials” having ISBN 978-81-272-5069-0

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Relative magnetic permeability

Relative magnetic permeability is defined as the ratio of permeability of medium (μ) to the permeability of free space (μ0)

μr = μ/μ0

or                                 μr = B/H/(B0/H)

or                                 μr = B / B0

is permeability of free space.

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Magnetic permeability

Magnetic permeability is defined as the degree to which the magnetic lines of force can penetrate or permeate the material. It can also be defined as the ability of the material to permit the passage of magnetic lines of force through it.

As the magnetic induction is proportional to the magnetising field

B proportional H

or                     B = μH

where μ is called the permeability of the medium (material)

Reference: This article is referred from my book “electrical engineering materials” having ISBN: 978-81-272-5069-0.

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Intensity of magnetisation

It represents the extent to which a specimen is magnetised when placed in a magnetising field.

Or in other words the  intensity of magnetisation of a magnetic material is defined as the magnetic moment per unit volume of the material.

                                    M = Magnetic moment/volume = μM / V                            …1

Let       a = Uniform area of cross-section of the magnetised specimen.

            l = magnetic length of the specimen.

            m = strength of each pole of the specimen,

As                    μm = ml

and                   V = al

then equation (1) becomes

            M = m x 2l / a x 2l

or         M = m/a

thus intensity of magnetisation of  a  magnetic material is also defined as the pole strength per unit area of cross-section of the material.

Unit :    M= magnetic moment / Volume

            M= Amp.metre2 / metre3 = Am -1

These are S.I unit of M

Reference: This article is referred from my book “electrical engineering materials” having ISBN: 978-81-272-5069-0.

If you want to purchase winnerscience books, then please see “Winnerscience Books” page on top of website.

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Magnetic Intensity

Magnetic intensity is same as magnetizing force.

Therefore, it is also defined as the degree to which a magnetic field can magnetise a material is expressed in terms of magnetizing force.

Consider a toroidal solenoid with n turns per unit length carrying a current I. The magnetic induction of the field produced will be Continue reading “Magnetic Intensity”

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Magnetising Force

The degree to which a magnetic field can magnetise a material is expressed in terms of magnetizing force.

Consider a toroidal solenoid with n turns per unit length carrying a current I. The magnetic induction of the field produced will be Continue reading “Magnetising Force”

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Magnetic Induction

When a magnetic material is placed in an external magnetic field then material gets magnetized. Such magnetism produced in the material is called induced magnetism and the phenomenon is called is called magnetic induction

It is also defined as the number of magnetic lines of force inside a magnetized material crossing unit area normal to their direction.

It is given by                 B = Φ/A

Its S.I. units are weber per square meter.

Reference: This article is referred from my authored book “electrical engineering materials” having ISBN- 978-81-272-5069-0.

If you want to purchase winnerscience books, then please see “Winnerscience Books” page on top of website.

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