Cause of ferromagnetism

The phenomenon of ferromagnetism arises due to both the interaction between the neighbouring atomic dipoles and the alignment of the permanent dipoles in atoms that result from unpaired electrons in the outer shells. The ferromagnetic materials such as iron, cobalt have a specific electronic structure such that their outermost shell contains electrons even though the inner shell next to the outermost is still unfilled. Due to this electronic structure the spin magnetic moments of ferromagnetic materials become drastically large, resulting large atomic dipole moments.

Reference: This aarticle is is referred from my authored “electrical engineering materials” having ISBN 978-81-272-5069-0

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Examples of ferromagnetic materials

Ferromagnetic materials are those which are strongly magnetized even in the absence of external magnetic field.

Examples of ferromagnetic materials are:

Iron, nickel, cobalt, gadolinium and their alloys

Reference: This article is referred from my book “electrical engineering materials” having ISBN 978-81-271-5491-9.

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Ferromagnetic materials

Ferromagnetic materials are those magnetic materials which are strongly magnetized even in the absence of external magnetic field.

In other words, there are certain materials whose permanent atomic dipoles have a strong tendency to align themselves in the direction of the field. This property of the material is called ferromagnetism and the materials which exhibit this property are called ferromagnetic materials.

Example: Iron, nickel, cobalt

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Classification of Magnetic Materials

On the basis of the behavior of magnetic materials when placed in a magnetic field, all the magnetic materials can be classified as:

  • Diamagnetic materials
  • Paramagnetic materials
  • Ferromagnetic materials
  • Anti-ferromagnetic materials
  • Ferrimagnetic materials and
  • Meta & parasitic ferromagnetic materials

Reference: This article is referred from my book “electrical engineering materials” having ISBN 978-81-272-5069-0

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