Working of Helium Neon Laser

In the earlier articles, I have explained the construction of helium neon laser. Today let us discuss the working of helium neon laser:

Pumping of He atoms: When electric discharge is passed through the gas mixture of He and Ne, electrons are accelerated down the discharge tube in which mixture of He-Ne is placed. These accelerated electrons collide with helium atoms and excite them to higher energy levels (let us say F2 and F3).

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