Aklia group of institutions Bathinda

Name: Akila group of institutions
Affiliated with: Punjab Technical University (PTU), Kapurthala

Approved by: All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi.

Courses offered:

1. B.Tech.

Rayat & Bahra Institute of Engineering Bio-Techonology for women, Mohali

Name of Institute: Rayat & Bahra Institute of Engg. Biotechonology  for women

Affiliated with: Punjab Technical University (PTU), Kapurthala

Approved by: All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi.

Courses offered:

B.Tech.

  • Computer Science Engineering
  • Information Technology
  • Electronics and Communication Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Bio-medical

Eligibility for Admission in B.Tech. Continue reading “Rayat & Bahra Institute of Engineering Bio-Techonology for women, Mohali”

Construction and working of Ruby laser

The following article will explain each and everything about Ruby laser that is  everything about the construction and working of Ruby laser:

The first laser to be operated successfully was ruby laser. First demonstration of laser action using ruby crystal was given by T.H. Maiman in 1960. It is a solid state laser.

Construction

Ruby is a crystal of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) in which some of the aluminium ions (Al3+) are replaced by chromium ions (Cr3+). This is done by doping small amounts of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) in the melt of purified Al2O3.

These chromium ions give the crystal a pink or red color depending upon the concentration of chromium ions. Laser rods are prepared from a single crystal of pink ruby which contains 0.05% (by weight) chromium. Al2O3 does not participate in the laser action. It only acts as the host. Continue reading “Construction and working of Ruby laser”

Uses of ruby laser

Ruby laser has following uses or advantages or applications:

1. Ruby laser has very high output power of the order of 104 – 106 watts. It has wavelength of 6943 Angstroms.

2. Ruby lasers are used for holography, industrial cutting and welding.

Reference: This article is referred from my authored book “optics and lasers” having ISBN 81-272-2948-2. In case of any doubt, post in the comment section.

Drawbacks of ruby laser

Ruby laser has following drawbacks or disadvantages:

1. As the terminus of laser action is the ground state, it is difficult to maintain the population inversion. This fact results in ruby laser’s low efficiency.

2. The ruby laser requires high power pumping source.

3. The laser output is not continuous but occurs in the form of pulses of microsecond duration.

4. The defects due to crystalline imperfection are also present in ruby laser.

Reference: This article is referred from my authored book “optics and lasers” having ISBN 81-272-2948-2. In case of any doubt, post in the comment section.

Spiking in ruby laser

As we have discussed in working of ruby laser that the terminus of laser action is the ground state E1 in ruby laser. Therefore it is difficult to maintain the population inversion. This will result in the depletion of upper laser level E2 population (due to stimulated emission) more rapidly than it can be restored by the flash light that is optical pumping source. The laser emission is made up of spikes of high intensity emissions. This phenomenon is called spiking of the laser.

After the depletion of E2 state, the laser action ceases for a few microseconds. Since the flash lamp is still active, it again pumps the ground state chromium ions to upper level and again laser action begins. A series of such pulses is produced until the intensity of the flash light has fallen to such a level that it can no linger rebuild the necessary population inversion. So the output laser will be in the form of pulse in ruby laser or in other words, it will not be continuous.

Reference: This article is referred from my authored book “optics and lasers” having ISBN 81-272-2948-2. In case of any doubt, post in the comment section.