In ferroelectric materials, the polarization P does not vary linearly with electric field E.

Hysteresis curve: The plot of P versus E in which the material is polarized in one direction and then in opposite direction is called the hysteresis curve of the specimen.

When a piece of ferroelectric material initially unpolarized, is subjected to a gradually increasing electric field, the polarization P varies with E.

Remanent polarization or retentivity or remanence: Continue reading “FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS, HYSTERESIS CURVE AND SPONTANEOUS POLARIZATION”


Coercivity is defined as the value of the magnetising field at which the intensity of magnetisation becomes zero. It is also known as coercive field.

Hence, the coercivity of a material is a measure of the strength of the reverse magnetising field required to finish out the residual magnetism of the magnetic material.

Reference: This article is referred from my authored book “electrical engineering materials” having ISBN 978-81-272-5491-9. In case of any doubt, then comment it.