Wavelength and ouput of Nd YAG laser

Nd YAG laser has wavelength of about 10600 angstrom, that is in infrared region of spectrum. Nd YAG lasers may be operated in either a pulse mode or a continuous mode. The output powers for continuous wave mode range from 0.1 watts to 100 watts. The peak power for the pulse mode can range from tens or hundreds of kilowatts with a pulse lasting milliseconds. The pulse will last for 10-20 nanoseconds for a peak power of hundred megawatts.

Reference: This article is referred from my authored book “optics and lasers” having ISBN 978-81-272-3833-9. In case of any doubt, about this  article or in any other physics related article, post in the comment section.

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Working of Nd YAG laser

In the last article, I have explained the construction of Nd:YAG laser. Today, I will explain the working of it:

Nd:YAG is a four level laser system. The pumping of neodynium (Nd3+) ions to upper state (E4) is done using krypton arc lamp. Thus optical pumping is used in this laser. The wavelength of light of wavelength 7200 Å to 8000 Å excites the ground state (E1) Nd3+ ions to E4 states. From E4 states, they make a non-radiative transition and come to E3 state. E3 is the metastable state so population inversion is achieved between the levels E3 and E2.

After this, the process of stimulated emission will occur. (I have already explained the process of stimulated emission in detail in my previous articles).Thus, the laser emission will occur in between the levels E3 and E2 with the process of stimulated emission. So E3 is the upper laser level and E2 is the lower laser level. Then Nd3+ ions come back to the ground state E1. Laser emission will have wavelength  of 10600 Å so occur in the infrared range of spectrum.

Note: In next article, I will explain about the output and major applications of Nd:YAG of this laser. Till then, try to make the working diagram. In case of any problem, post in the comment section.

Reference: This article is referred from my authored book “optics and lasers” having ISBN 978-81-272-2948-2.

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Note from winnerscience: If you want the e-notes of all the laser  articles that will include the basics of lasers like stimulated absorption, difference between spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein  Coefficients, properties and applications of lasers, complete construction and working of lasers like Ruby laser, He-Ne laser, Carbon dioxide laser, Nd:YAG laser, dye laser, semiconductor laser, holography and additional articles of Q-switching and mode locking, then please contact winnerscience@gmail.com. You can post your queries also there.

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Construction of Nd YAG laser

Nd: YAG is a solid state laser four level laser. Nd stands for neodymium and YAG for Yttrium aluminium garnet (Y3Al5O12). It is developed by J.E. Geusic, H.M. Marcos and L.G. Van Vitert in 1964. The rod of Y3Al5O12­ is doped 1% with triply ionized neodymium. Nd3+ ions will replace the Y3+ ions in the crystal. Maximum length of the rod is about 10 cm and diameter is 6-9 cm.

Active medium: Nd3+ ions act as active medium or active centers. YAG is just the host.

Pumping source: The pumping of Nd3+ ions to upper levels is done by krypton arc lamp. Xenon lamp can also be used as pumping source. Thus, the optical pumping is used to achieve population inversion.

Optical resonator system: The ends of the Nd:YAG rod are polished and silvered so as to act as the optical resonator system.

Note: In next article, I will explain the working. Till then, try to make the construction diagram. In case of any problem, post in the comment section.

Reference: This article is referred from my authored book “optics and lasers” having ISBN 978-81-272-2948-2

Kindly Read This Also :

Note from winnerscience: If you want the e-notes of all the laser  articles that will include the basics of lasers like stimulated absorption, difference between spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein  Coefficients, properties and applications of lasers, complete construction and working of lasers like Ruby laser, He-Ne laser, Carbon dioxide laser, Nd:YAG laser, dye laser, semiconductor laser, holography and additional articles of Q-switching and mode locking, then please contact winnerscience@gmail.com. You can post your queries also there.

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